How To Write A Conclusion Effectively

I can’t tell you how many times I get approached by my students who feel that they just don’t know how to write a conclusion.

I truly understand why many find it difficult. At this point in your paper, it may feel that you have nothing left to say. After all, you probably have already written pages of information. So, what left is there to say? Well, sorry to say, but there is still some important information you must include in your conclusion.

Although some may find that conclusions are hard to write, it is what readers will remember the most. It is your last chance to “wow” them. Thus, it’s important to know how to write a conclusion well. And, if you write a good one, it can leave a really great lasting impression on your readers.

The concluding paragraph sums up everything you have previously stated in the body paragraphs of your essay.

It almost mirrors your introduction in the sense that it reemphasizes your thesis.

Keep in mind that it does not repeat your thesis word for word. Click here to check that you know how to write a thesis.

The purpose of a conclusion is to provide your readers with an overall sense of closure to the argument and ideas you have already mentioned.


Below are some tips on how to write a conclusion effectively:

  • Try asking yourself “so what?” You have pages and pages of written ideas. Now why are all these ideas so important? Sum it up for your readers. In your conclusion, show your readers why this information was so meaningful.
  • Don’t simply summarize what you have already written. Yes, you do want to draw on the issues you have mentioned, but don’t simply repeat everything verbatim. Your readers have already read your paper, so they are familiar with your ideas. In your conclusion you need to provide a sense of closure to these items. Basically, wrap it up. Show your readers that all the ideas you have mentioned throughout your paper were not just random ideas, but they all fit together for a purpose you are trying to get them to see.
  • Relate your ideas to the real world. Give your readers some information to get them thinking about the bigger issue. Perhaps show how the issues you have mentioned are “real world” issues. Depending on the topic of your paper, it may not be possible to do this. However, the idea is getting your reader to think about a more general idea. By demonstrating how your ideas work together, you can create a big picture.
  • Echo your introduction. A good strategy for writing a conclusion is to bring your readers full-circle by echoing your introduction. If you started your paper with a specific anecdote or scenario, you could end with the same anecdote or scenario. This strategy may not apply to all papers, but could be useful if you are trying to show that your argument was helpful in understanding that particular scenario. It is a good idea to look at your introduction while writing your conclusion to make sure you are bringing your readers full-circle. Click here to see some more suggestions on how to write an introduction.
  • Don’t mention new information in your conclusion. This is one of the most important tips I can share with you. You never want to introduce a new idea. It only causes your reader to be confused and it belittles the importance of your topic that you have tried so hard to develop throughout your paper. And, I'm positive your teacher will definitely knock some points off if he/she finds new information.
  • EXAMPLE: As you can see, the problem of smoking on our campus can be very detrimental to students, but the lack of online classes is an even worse problem.

    In this example, the writer made it seem that their topic "smoking on campus" is not as important as "online classes". By introducing the new idea of online classes, the writer is showing that the idea they have worked so hard to develop is not as important. This only creates contradiction in yourself as a writer and confusion for your readers. Never introduce a new idea.

The tips listed above should give you a good idea on how to write a conclusion. When you are finally done writing your conclusion, go back and read your introduction. Does your introduction truly introduce the ideas that you are concluding in your conclusion? If not, you may need to edit or rewrite your introduction. Click here to see great ways on how to write an introduction effectively. If you are still struggling on how to write a conclusion or with any aspect of your paper, feel free to contact me and I will be happy to assist you.

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